Christopher David Hughes, Ivan Urits, Eugene Fukudome, Fred E Shapiro


Over the last 30 years, an increasing proportion of operations are being performed in offices or ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). Office-based surgical suites often provide substantial advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, but they also provide unique challenges and mandate unique considerations with respect to anesthesia care and patient safety. As operations and patients continue to increase in complexity, additional oversight and regulation will likely help improve safety in the office setting. 

Rather than provide a prescriptive detail of instructions for safe office-based surgery, our present report highlights key concepts and considerations for safe and effective cosmetic surgical care.  We focus on common key safety considerations in oxygen delivery, lidocaine toxicity, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage, and analgesic techniques used to enhance postoperative recovery. As an increasing proportion of patients receive their operations in the ambulatory setting, this information may prove useful for practitioners in all fields of medicine.


patient safety; outpatient surgery; cosmetic surgery; safe anesthesia

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