Diagnostic Process for Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS): A Consensus Statement

Lysander Jim, Yvonne Berry, Ming Dooley, James Ryan, Scott McMahon

Abstract


Clinical management of patients with a complex, multisystem, multi-symptom illness identified as a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) has expanded. Often associated with illness due to exposure to low molecular weight biotoxins and inflammagens found (i) inside water-damaged buildings (WDB); (ii) following exposure to blooms of cyanobacteria; (iii) following consumption of ciguatoxic fish; and (iv) following confirmed acute Lyme disease, persistent despite reasonable use of antibiotics, CIRS is increasingly recognized. A need for a formal case definition and case management protocol has arisen. Patients with CIRS will have abnormalities in innate responses, reduced levels of regulatory neuropeptides MSH and VIP, elevated inflammatory markers of C4a, MMP9 and TGF beta-1. Systemic illness, based on abnormal gene activation and suppression, as shown by RNA Seq and transcriptomics, requires a multi-factorial, rigorous diagnostic assessment to assist in both differential diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. A consensus statement is herein provided to assist practitioners in case identification and management.


Keywords


CIRS, water-damaged buildings, transcriptomics, cyanobacteria, Post Lyme syndrome ciguatera, visual contrast sensitivity

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/imr.v4i5.718

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